Writing your own startup code for Cortex-M

Introduction

This document is designed as a tutorial in how to write assembly code for the Cortex-M series.

I only know the assembler syntax for the GNU assembler, but as there are many different assemblers available, you might need to consult the documentation for the one you will be using.

This tutorial will teach you what different directives in the GNU Assembler (GAS) do, and also teach you a few basic Cortex-M instructions.

The code was written for Cortex-M3 and will work on Cortex-M4. It will require minor modification for Cortex-M0, since I've used instructions that are only present in Cortex-M3 and Cortex-M4.

In addition, you will also learn how to define simple macros that takes parameters.

And finally, you will learn how a Cortex-M microcontroller starts up.

Note: Throughout the document, I've used C-style comments. Normally, a comment starts with semicolon, and extends to the rest of the line.

Whitespaces are ignored

But when using GAS, the rules are different. GAS expects comments to start with a '@' instead of colon.

That is a little inconvenient when writing documents like this, and the C-comments should work if you use a C pre-processor.

You might want to write comments in this way, in order to make them more compatible:

                    ;/* This comment should work in most assemblers. */

Assembler Directives

You'll want to be familiar with these assembler-directives, I'll explain some of them in detail later, and you will see how they are used:

                    .syntax             unified                     /* use modern assembler syntax + auto-generate IT instructions. Put in top of your source file */

                    .weak               label{,label}               /* allow 'label' to be undefined. If it's undefined, it will have the value NULL (0x00000000). */

                    .weakref            label,defaultLabel          /* allow 'label' to be undefined. If it's undefined, it will have the value of another label. */

                    .section            sectionName                 /* all output from now on goes into a section called 'sectionName' */

                    .align              [bitposition]               /* align the output offset */

                    .long               value                       /* output a 32-bit value */

                    .text                                           /* all output from now on goes into a section called '.text' (same as '.section .text') */

                    .func               label[,actualLabel]         /* mark the beginning of function 'label', so the linker may exclude the block if not referenced */

                    .endfunc                                        /* mark the end of the function */

                    .pool                                           /* allow the assembler to place constants here */

                    .size               label,size                  /* tell the linker how long the block that this symbol points to is (in Bytes) */

                    .thumb_func         label                       /* mark this as a thumb function (required if the function is called by using 'bx' or 'blx') */

                    .type               label,%type                 /* specify the type of the symbol. Required if there is a pointer to the function somewhere. */

                    .cpu                cpuType                     /* cpuType may for instance be cortex-m0, cortex-m3 or cortex-m4. */

 

Some of the directives above may take more parameters than I've shown. '.align' and '.section' are two such directives.

See the GNU Assembler Manual for more information on these directives.

The above are not instructions; they're assembler-directives, which means they tell the assembler something, without producing "code".

We've already been looking at ".syntax unified", which allow us to use modern unified syntax and can automate the generation of IT-instructoins (If-Then instructions).

In order to let the assembler generate the IT instructions automatically, you may have to enable this feature on the compiler's command-line.

For gcc, this option is as follows: -Wa,-mimplicit-it=always

The .weak directive allows a label to be undefined. If it's undefined, the value will default to NULL. You can specify multiple labels in one .weak directive; for instance:

                    .weak               LowLevelInit,SystemInit,cab,cap,car,cat

If any of the above mentioned labels do not exist at compile (assemble) time, their values will default to NULL (0x00000000).

That means you can check at run-time if they're there.

The .weakref directive allows you to specify a default-value instead of NULL. This is especially useful for exception vectors.

For instance...

                    .weakref            Reset_Handler,defaultResetHandler

                    .weakref            HardFault_Handler,defaultExceptionHandler

                    .weakref            NMI_Handler,defaultExceptionHandler

                    ...

                    ...

                    .weakref            SysTick_Handler,defaultExceptionHandler

                    ...

... Here we provide default handlers in our startup.S file (capital .S is recommended due to case-problems with some compilers on Windows)

Our default handlers are called defaultResetHandler and defaultExceptionHandler.

All it does is to go into an infinite loop, so you could think of this as "stopping" the microcontroller (although the program is in fact still running).

Normally, we would just use our standard 'defaultResetHandler', but in case we need to do things differently, it's nice to be able to override the default handler, without having to copy-and-edit the startup code.

-So all exceptions that we haven't implemented in our code, will point to the same handler.

The Exception Vector Table

Knowing the above, we can start creating our exception vector table using the '.long' directive, which will output a 32-bit value to the binary file directly:

                    .section            isr_vector                  /* Put everything in a section called "isr_vector" from now on... */

                    .align              2                           /* Make sure the output goes on an address divisible by 4 (that's 1 << 2) */

                                                                    /* Address:   Exception Vector Description: */

                    .long               _stack                      /* 0x00000000 The initial stack pointer (defined by the linker-script) */

                    .long               Reset_Handler               /* 0x00000004 The startup-code, the code that runs on power-on or RESET */

                    .long               NMI_Handler                 /* 0x00000008 Non-Masktable Interrupt, this can not be stopped, preempted or prevented */

                    .long               HardFault_Handler           /* 0x0000000c Hard Fault, all classes of Fault */

                    .long               MemManage_Handler           /* 0x00000010 Memory Management, MPU mismatch, including Access Violation and No Match */

                    .long               BusFault_Handler            /* 0x00000014 Bus Fault, Pre-Fetch- Memory Access Fault, other address/memory related Fault */

                    .long               UsageFault_Handler          /* 0x00000018 Usage Fault, i.e. Undefined Instructions, Illegal State Transitions */

                    .long               0                           /* 0x0000001c */

                    .long               0                           /* 0x00000020 */

                    .long               0                           /* 0x00000024 */

                    .long               0                           /* 0x00000028 */

                    .long               SVC_Handler                 /* 0x0000002c Supervisor Call */

                    .long               DebugMon_Handler            /* 0x00000030 Debug Monitor */

                    .long               0                           /* 0x00000034 */

                    .long               PendSV_Handler              /* 0x00000038 Pending Service, pending requests for system service */

                    .long               SysTick_Handler             /* 0x0000003c System Tick Timer (this may not exist on all implementations) */

/*                  .long       ..._IRQHandler */                   /* 0x00000040 and forward. IRQ vectors specific to your microcontroller follows here... */

                    .text                                           /* Put everything in the text-section from now on... */

                    .align                                          /* Make sure address is aligned for code output */

                    /* you can place your startup code here if you wish. */

As the exception vectors must be the very first data in the flash-memory, we've created a special section, which we call "isr_vector".

In our linker-script, we can tell the linker that the 'isr_vector' must be the very first section in the output file, so we're sure it's placed correctly every time. We should only have one block of data/code in the "isr_vector" section.

The .align directive ensures that the next output from the assembler will be placed on an address, which is suitable for an assembler-instruction.

Usually such addresses must be divisible by 4; .align takes care of that.

The .text directive will do the same as ".section .text", it switches to the section called '.text', which usually contains normal code.

The .text section is by default read-only and executable.

On all Cortex-M microcontrollers, the first 16 vectors are always located at the same addresses.

Some processors may choose to not implement a SysTick handler for instance.

After the first 16 vectors, there's space for IRQ vectors. Those usually differ between different kinds of devices; even within the same vendor.

For instance, one Cortex-M4 based microcontroller may have Timer0_IRQHandler,Timer1_IRQHandler,Timer2_IRQHandler,Timer3_IRQHandler, while another one from the same vendor would start by having a WDT_IRQHandler there instad; the timers could be placed 13 vectors later, and not necessarily contiguous.

The Startup Code

You can place your startup-code in the .text section, for instance, this is how a standard startup code for C could be implemented.

The startup code will start by looking for the LowLevelInit and SystemInit functions. If they're found, they will be executed (in that order).

After that, the .data section will be copied to SRAM, and an optional .fastcode section will be copied to SRAM as well.

The .fastcode section is often an "advanced topic", as it usually requires you to tweak the linker-scripts.

It would work just as well for assembly language...

                    .macro             FUNCTION name                /* this macro makes life less tedious. =) */

                    .func              \name,\name                  /* this tells a debugger that the function starts here */

                    .type              \name,%function              /* when a function is pointed to from a table, this is mandatory */

                    .thumb_func                                     /* when a function is called by using 'bx' or 'blx' this is mandatory */

                    .align                                          /* make sure the address is aligned for code output */

\name\():                                                           /* this defines the label. the \() is necessary to separate the colon from the label */

                    .endm

                    .macro             ENDFUNC name                 /* FUNCTION and ENDFUNC must always be paired */

                    .size              \name, . - \name             /* tells the linker how big the code block for the function is */

                    .pool                                           /* let the assembler place constants here */

                    .endfunc                                        /* mark the end of the function, so a debugger can display it better */

                    .endm

                    .text                                           /* switch to text section, so code will be placed there. */

                    FUNCTION            defaultResetHandler

                    ldr                 r0,=LowLevelInit            /* get the address of the LowLevelInit routine */

                    cmp                 r0,#0                       /* is it NULL ? */

                    blxne               r0                          /* if not, call the routine. */

                    ldr                 r0,=SystemInit              /* get the address of the SystemInit routine */

                    cmp                 r0,#0                       /* is it NULL ? */

                    blxne               r0                          /* if not, call the routine. */

                    /* copy the .data section from Flash memory to SRAM (this allows us to pre-initialize variables) */

                    ldr                 r1,=_sidata                 /* point our source register to the start of the .data section */

                    ldr                 r2,=_sdata                  /* point our destination register to the SRAM dedicated to our writable data */

                    ldr                 r3,=_edata                  /* point r3 after the last byte we will be writing */

                    bl                  copy                        /* call a subroutine that copies the memory block */

                    /* copy code from Flash memory to SRAM. Code executes faster in SRAM than in Flash memory. */

                    ldr                 r1,=_sifastcode             /* source address */

                    ldr                 r2,=_sfastcode              /* destination start */

                    ldr                 r3,=_efastcode              /* destination end */

                    bl                  copy                        /* copy code */

                    /* Now zero the .bss section. This is a section of memory, which is dedicated to our varaibles. */

                    movs                r0,#0                       /* zero r0 */

                    ldr                 r1,=_sbss                   /* point r1 to BSS starting address (in SRAM) */

                    ldr                 r2,=_ebss                   /* point r2 to BSS ending address (in SRAM) */

1:                  cmp                 r1,r2                       /* check if end is reached */

                    strlo               r0,[r1],#4                  /* if end not reached, store zero and advance pointer */

                    blo                 1b                          /* if end not reached, branch back to loop */

                    ldr                 r0,=main                    /* get the address of the C 'main' code */

                    blx                 r0                          /* jump to code */

                    b                   defaultExceptionHandler     /* if we ever get here, we'll continue into an infinite loop for safety reasons */

copy:               cmp                 r2,r3                       /* check if we've reached the end */

                    ldrlo               r0,[r1],#4                  /* if end not reached, get word and advance source pointer */

                    strlo               r0,[r2],#4                  /* if end not reached, store word and advance destination pointer */

                    blo                 copy                        /* if end not reached, branch back to loop */

                    bx                  lr                          /* return to caller */

                    ENDFUNC             defaultResetHandler

                    FUNCTION            defaultExceptionHandler

                    wfi                                             /* wait for an interrupt, in order to save power */

                    b                   defaultExceptionHandler     /* go round loop */

                    ENDFUNC             defaultExceptionHandler

Notice the use of ldrlo and strlo will allow us to copy / write zero byte blocks.

Normally, on other microcontrollers, we would have to make an initial branch forward, wasting both space and CPU-time.

-That's not necessary, on a Cortex-M3 or later, because we can have conditional execution on all the instructions in the loop.

... You can implement the above defaultResetHandler.

This would allow you to write a small program easily, without worrying about the basic setup.

If at some point, you need it, you can write your own Reset_Handler, which will override (and discard) the defaultResetHandler.

-Thus the defaultResetHandler will not even be present in the final file.

Related articles

Anonymous
  • stellanhaglund wrote:

    ... this is not the full startup code, you need to finish it with C or something like that, am I right?

    It depends on your needs.

    If you need to write your own code in assembly language, the above is more than sufficient.

    If you need C or C++, then you might want to add some additional C and C++ initialization. (My personal opinion on this is that it's "bloat", but my opinions on this do not really matter).

    I must emphasize that the above code does not include the exception table for your chosen device.

    You will need to write (or copy) that table yourself. Such a table can be anywhere from a few entries to more than 100 entries long.

    It would include timer-interrupts, peripheral-interrupts, etc.

    If you need to support C and C++, the first thing you'll need to do is to add a call to __libc_init_array right before you call (or jump to) main.

    Calling __libc_init_array has to be done after initializing the data and BSS sections, because otherwise you would overwrite the things that the __libc_init_array function sets up.

    If, on the other hand, you want to stick with pure assembly language, things get a lot simpler. You "own" the CPU; you can do whatever you wish and use whichever registers and calling conventions you want.

    You may be able to get away with not calling __libc_init_array, if you write your C without global variables and you do not use any library functions.

    Parameters to C functions are passed in r0, r1, r2 and r3. If more than 4 parameters are needed, then they're placed on the stack.

    If C functions need to call assembly language subroutines, the called subroutine must preserve registers r4-r11.

    If your assembly code needs to call C functions, you should know that the C functions might change r0-r3, r12 and r14.

    I do this often, when I write subroutines that I need to change frequently (eg. subroutines that set up tables, timers or the like).

    At a later point, when I've settled on how the function should operate, I sometimes convert it to assembly language.

  • Hi, first of all thanks for the tutorial!

    I'm very interested in this, but from what I can understand this is not the full startup code, you need to finish it with C or something like that, am I right?

    I would like to learn how to create complete programs in assembly, mainly because that way I will learn much more that way, so what would I need to add to finish this?

    Thanks,

  • Certainly!

    In the top of the document, you will find a directive like the following:

        .weakref            Reset_Handler,defaultResetHandler

    -This tells the assembler (and linker) that if it does not find a symbol called "Reset_Handler", then it should substitute it by "defaultResetHandler".

    As I did not supply you with a "Reset_Handler" function, you can write one yourself.

    If you write one yourself and name it Reset_Handler, it will then override the defaultResetHandler.

    Unfortunately many silicon vendors do not allow the user to override their reset handlers, so you'll always have to modify their code.

    Imagine that you write 20 programs, and you need your own Reset_Handler in each one of them.

    You then decide to update your library for the particular device. Unfortunately you now have to manually modify each of the 20 programs' startup code.

    It is much more convenient to use a .weakref for this.

    (Hint: You can also use .weakref in your own code, so you can easily and quickly add ready-made modules).

  • Explain me more about how the default reset handler works as per written instructions?

  • Thank you, Jens!

    Removing __attribute__ ((naked)) did the trick. This is not meant to be portable code, so I'll just keep it attribute free.

    /Bo