Sensors are used in many applications and can be found in systems ranging from automotive, medical, chemical, industrial and consumer applications. The advances in MEMS technology has enabled low cost sensing and monitoring of physical and environmental conditions. By putting more intelligence into the sensors, we can build better systems by combining embedded microprocessors and wireless communications.
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are a process technology used to create tiny integrated devices that combine both mechanical and electrical components. They are fabricated using conventional batch processing techniques and can range in size from a few micrometers to millimeters. The size of MEMS devices has been decreasing over time. Technology scaling has allowed MEMS chips to shrink from 1cm2 in 1990 to less than 1mm2 by 2014. The advantage of MEMS Technology is the paradigm shift in the miniaturization of both mechanical and electrical functions on the same die. Today, MEMS mechanical components can be a manufactured with excellent performance, high reliability and good yield. Figure 1 shows a microphotograph of a MEMS gyroscope fabricated on a batch silicon process.